of the Union victories at Atlanta and Mobile Bay, President Lincoln
declared a national day of celebration. On September 5, Louisiana
rejoined the Union with an amendment to its state constitution
abolishing slavery in a vote by those who had sworn allegiance to the
United States; this was a procedure outlined by President
Lincoln. John C. Fremont had been nominated for president by a
radical faction of the Republican Party; on September 17, he withdrew,
fearing that he and Lincoln would split the Republican vote, allowing
McClellan to be elected.
2, 1864, General Robert E. Lee suggested to President Jefferson Davis
that they should utilize black slaves to replace white laborers in the
The last major engagements in the east
before August of 1864 were the Battle of Cold Harbor on the
first three days of June, 1864, and then the start of the siege of
Petersburg, which began in June of 1864 and continued until April of
with the Battle of the Crater having taken place on July 20, 1864.
The month began with forces under Union General Phil Sheridan engaged
with Confederate General Jubal Early’s forces at Opequon Creek.
General Lee had asked Early for troops, and on September 3, General
Richard H. Anderson’s corps, which Early had sent to Lee, was turned
back by Sheridan’s troops at Berryville. These troops again left
Early on the 14th, substantially weakening the Confederate forces in
the Valley. Grant and Sheridan met on the 16th and planned an
attack on the weakened Southern army at Winchester. On September
19, Sheridan attacked Early at Winchester; after stiff fighting, Early
was forced into full retreat. Sheridan’s forces pursued Early’s
retreating men the next day. On the 21st, Early dug in at
Fisher’s Hill. Sheridan again attacked Early on the 22d, putting
Early’s army into full retreat again. Two days later, Sheridan
turned his attention to destroying food sources in the Shenandoah
Valley. Back at Petersburg, on September 29 Grant attacked Forts
Harrison and Gilmore, capturing the former. The next day, the
newly arrived Confederate forces under General Richard H. Anderson
attempted to retake Fort Harrison, but failed.
The next major engagement in the east was the continued
siege of Petersburg, which began in June of 1864 and lasted
until April of 1865, and in fact was the final major
engagement in the Eastern Theater.
The last major engagement in the west
before August of 1864 was the Battle of Kennesaw Mountain
on June 27, 1864.
A great victory for the North took place on the first of
September, 1864, when Southern General Hood’s Army of Tennessee
evacuated Atlanta to Union General Sherman’s army; Hood’s forces blew
up much-needed supplies that they were unable to take with them.
Union General Henry Slocum's XX Corps began to move into Atlanta the
next day. On September 4, Union forces under General A.C. Gillem
surrounded Confederate raider John Hunt Morgan and his men at
Greenville, Tennessee. Morgan had escaped from an Ohio prison the
year before; this time, Morgan was shot and killed. On September
7, General Sherman ordered all civilians to evacuate Atlanta.
Three days later, Grant telegraphed Sherman suggesting further actions
against Hood’s army, without specific directions. On September
27, a Confederate cavalry force of 12,000 under General Sterling Price
attacked a Federal garrison at Pilot Knob, Missouri, under Thomas
Ewing, Jr.; the Union force beat off the attack despite substantial
numerical disadvantage, and then escaped under the cover of darkness
The next major engagement was the Battle of Franklin, November 30, 1864.
bombardment of Fort Sumter ended on September 4, 1864, for a day or so,
resuming on the 6th for another nine days.
Source: The Civil War Day By Day, edited by John S.
Official Record of the Month
O.R.-- SERIES I--VOLUME XXXVIII/5 [S#
HDQRS. MILITARY DIVISION OF THE
In the Field, Atlanta, Ga., September 7, 1864.
Commanding Confederate Army:
GENERAL: I have deemed it to the interest of the
United States that the citizens now residing in Atlanta should remove,
those who prefer it to go South and the rest North. For the latter I
can provide food and transportation to points of their election in
Tennessee, Kentucky, or farther north. For the former I can provide
transportation by cars as far as Rough and Ready, and also wagons; but
that their removal may be made with as little discomfort as possible it
will be necessary for you to help the families from Rough and Ready to
the cars at Lovejoy's. If you consent I will undertake to remove all
families in Atlanta who prefer to go South to Rough and Ready, with all
their movable effects, viz, clothing, trunks, reasonable furniture,
bedding, &c., with their servants, white and black, with the
proviso that no force shall be used toward the blacks one way or the
other. If they want to go with their masters or mistresses they may do
so, otherwise they will be sent away, unless they be men, when they may
be employed by our quartermaster. Atlanta is no place for families or
non-combatants and I have no desire to send them North if you will
assist in conveying them South. If this proposition meets your views I
will consent to a truce in the neighborhood of Rough and Ready,
stipulating that any wagons, horses, or animals, or persons sent there
for the purposes herein stated shall in no manner be harmed or
molested, you in your turn agreeing that any cars, wagons, carriages,
persons, or animals sent to the same point shall not be interfered
with. Each of us might send a guard of, say, 100 men to maintain order,
and limit the truce to, say, two days after a certain time appointed. I
have authorized the mayor to choose two citizens to convey to you this
letter and such documents as the mayor may forward in explanation, and
shall await your reply.
I have the honor to be, your obedient servant,
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